Communities of Practice Knowledge Garden: articles

Organizing professional communities of practice (dissertation)

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Technologies to Support Communities of Practice: US Army

Command.com and PlatoonLeader.org connect platoon leaders and company commanders in the Army allowing them to share what they are learning real-time, laterally across the entire organization. In addition to better preparation and learning while in the job, participating in these communities ensures that key experience is not lost. These communities also facilitate a culture change that encourages collaboration and the sharing of knowledge and experiences. Considering that all Army officers-literally thousands each year-command a platoon or company, the impact of this concept is phenomenal.

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Motivation and barriers to participation in virtual knowledge-sharing communities of practice

This paper reports the results of a qualitative study of motivation and barriers to employee participation in virtual knowledge-sharing communities of practice at Caterpillar Inc., a Fortune 100, multinational corporation. The study indicates that, when employees view knowledge as a public good belonging to the whole organization, knowledge flows easily. However, even when individuals give the highest priority to the interests of the organization and of their community, they tend to shy away from contributing knowledge for a variety of reasons. Specifically, employees hesitate to contribute out of fear of criticism, or of misleading the community members (not being sure that their contributions are important, or completely accurate, or relevant to a specific discussion). To remove the identified barriers, there is a need for developing various types of trust, ranging from the knowledge-based to the institution-based trust. Future research directions and implications for KM practitioners are formulated.

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e-Catalunya: boosting eGov innovation by Communities of Practice

The case provides a thorough approach based on the experience and methodology of the Regional Government of Generalitat de Catalunya to articulate the creation of knowledge creation and treatment based upon a sustained interaction among CoPs.

The target group is composed of all stakeholder and intervenient forming part of any Public Administration (this is typically civil servants and employees). However, this Communities of Practice are composed of a wider type of participants, as collaborators, professionals, personnel from other Public Administrations (at the local or national level), groups of experts and citizens, all linked under a very specific and shared domain of interest, where they are practitioners.

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Sharing best practices through online communities of practice: a case study (USAID)

Online CoPs are a useful interface for connecting developing country experiences. From CoPs, we may uncover challenges and opportunities that are faced in the absorption of key public health competencies required for decreasing maternal mortality and morbidity. Use of the World Health Organization (WHO) Implementing Best Practices Knowledge Gateway, which requires only a low bandwidth connection, gave educators an opportunity to engage in the discussion even in the most Internet access-restricted places (e.g. Ethiopia). In order to sustain an online CoP, funds must come from an international organization (e.g. WHO regional office) or university that can program the costs long-term. Eventually, the long-term effectiveness and sustainability of GAPS rests on its transfer to the members themselves.

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Classroom communities’ adaptations of the practice of scientific argumentation

Scientific argumentation is increasingly seen as a key inquiry practice for students in science classrooms. This is a complex practice that entails three overlapping, instructional goals: Participants articulatetheir understandings and work to persuadeothers of those understandings in order to make sense of the phenomenon under study. This study examines the argumentative discussions that emerged in two middle school science classrooms to explore variation in how the goals of sensemaking and persuasion were taken up.

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Network Characteristics and the Value of Collaborative User-Generated Content

[..] Contrary to previous theory, locally central content|characterized by greater intensity of work by contributors to multiple content source is negatively associated with viewership. In addition, network reacts are stronger for newer collaborative user-generated content. A recursive relationship between contribution and viewership activity suggests a virtuous cycle between the value ofand contribution to user-generated content, but this dynamic matures and stabilizes over time.

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New Study by Carnegie Mellon, MIT and Union College Shows Collective Intelligence Of Groups Exceeds Cognitive Abilities of Individual Group Members

When it comes to intelligence, the whole can indeed be greater than the sum of its parts. A new study co-authored by Carnegie Mellon University, MIT and Union College researchers documents the existence of collective intelligence among groups of people who cooperate well, showing that such intelligence extends beyond the cognitive abilities of the groups’ individual members, and that the tendency to cooperate effectively is linked to the number of women in a group.

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Communities of practice and organizational performance
[..] To build an understanding of how communities of practice create organizational value, we suggest thinking of a community as an engine for the development of social capital. We argue that the social capital resident in communities of practice leads to behavioral changes, which in turn positively influence business performance. We identify four specific performance outcomes associated with the communities of practice we studied and link these outcomes to the basic dimensions of social capital.
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Siemens takes a grass-roots approach to knowledge management
Siemens, once noted for its bureaucratic and hierarchical approach to business, has adopted a grass-roots and “bottom up” approach to knowledge management, which has transformed the company over the last three years. Without any suggestion or provocation from above, middle-level employees and managers in Siemens business units began to create repositories, communities of practice and informal sharing approaches for knowledge.

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Communities of Practice, a social discipline of learning: nurturing a physical and virtual social learning environment
Keleher, Patrick and Hutchinson, Steven (2010). Communities of Practice, a social discipline of learning: nurturing a physical and virtual social learning environment. In: World Association of Co-operative Education International Conference on Work Integrated Learning, 3-5 Feb 2010, Hong Kong, China.
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Can a ‘Communities of Practice’ Framework be Applied to the Creative Industries as an Identified Audience for the V&A?

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Virtual Communities of Practice: Investigating Motivations and Constraints in the Processes of Knowledge Creation and Transfer

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Inside Outside
Improving Mental Health Services for Black and Minority Ethnic Communities in England Report on first steps in developing guidance on how to meet the needs of black and ethnic service users according to the NSF for Mental Health (PDF, 202 kB)

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Learning in a community of practice
Creating and managing knowledge through networked expertise. Maarten de Laat. (PDF, 85 kB) here

OntoShare
A knowledge management environment for virtual communities of practice by John Davies

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Enhancing knowledge exchange
..Through Communities of Practice at the Inter-American Development Bank The Knowledge Bank and the Global Development Network

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Getting strategic value from constellations of communities.
Strategy and Leadership by Andrew Chetley (PDF, 247 kB)

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US Aid – Development for Community of Practice.
The US Aid website has numerous references and documents about community management, getting started tools, functionality and software overviews and social network analysis introductions.

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Motivation and Barriers to Participation In Virtual Knowledge-Sharing Communities Of Practice by Alexander Ardichvili, 2002.

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Using communities of practice to enhance student learning: examples and issues, written by Edward Bilodeau from McGill University. 2003.

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Creating Authentic On-Line Communities of Professional Practice. Mandia Mentis, Ken Ryba & Jean Annan Massey University (NZ).
In this presentation, they outline how principles of situated cognition and Vygotskian thought contribute to our understanding of how to create vibrant and authentic on-line communities of practice.

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Forging Links Between “Communities of Practice” and Schools Through Online Learning Communities: Implications for Appropriating and Negotiating Knowledge, David Hung, International Journal on E-Learning (IJEL).
In this paper, Hung suggests how links between schools and communities of practice can be forged through networked on-line learning communities

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Situated cognition, Vygotskian thought, and learning from the communities of practice perspective: Implications for the design of web-based e-learning.
Hung, D. W. L., & Der-Thanq, C. (2001). . Education Media International 38(1), 3-12.

Situated cognition and the culture of learning
written by John Seely Brown and Collins (1989). Institute for Inquiry, 1998.

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Situated learning: An inductive case study of a collaborative learning experience
by Schell and Black, R.S. (1997). Journal of Industrial Teacher Education 34(4), 5-29

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Networks as learning communities: Shaping the future of teacher development.
Lieberman (2000). Journal of teacher education 221-227

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Community of Practice a metaphor for Online Design
written by Schwen and Hara. (2003). The Information Society, 19(3), 257-270.

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Communities-of-Practice in Workplaces: Learning as a Naturally Occurring Event.
Written by Hara, and Schwen. Performance Improvement Quarterly.

Authentic learning within the community of practice: The Advancing Teaching and Learning Program (case study).
Deborah Ingram and Allan Goody, The University of Western Australia. 2002.

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The Invisible Keys to Success by Thomas Stewart.
Fortune Magazine, 1996.

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Organizational learning and communities-of-practice: Toward a unified view of working, learning, and innovation.
By J.S. Brown and Paul Duguid. (1996)

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The Core of Online Communities of Practice.
By Steven J. Schweitzer, US Army (CALDOL) (2003)

rgyris and Schön’s theory on congruence and learning.
By Liane Anderson

Donald Schon (Schön)
Learning, reflection and change

See the other resources in the Efios Community of Practice Knowledge Garden.

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